## Tuesday, April 25, 2006

### Seminar: Boolean Search Model

Boolean Search Models

The word “Boolean” derived from George Boole a British mathematician.
George Boole in the period of 1815-1864 devised a system of symbolic logic, in which he used three operators, viz. +, *, - to combine statements in symbolic logic, from John Venn later expressed. Boolean logic relationships through what are known as “Venn diagrams”. The three operators of Boolean logic are the logical sum (+), logical product (*), and logical difference. Information retrieval systems allow expressing their queries by using these operators.
The technical definition of Boolean is of or relating to a logical combinatorial system treating variables, such as propositions and computer logic elements. Through the operators AND, OR, NOT

Boolean Query Formulation:

Boolean query logic is one of the popular methods of query logic used for searching required information.
Historically the first and still the most common method used for expressing micro logic in query statements is Boolean Algebra. This is involves specifying the operations to be performed on sets that have been defined by relationship statements or precious set operation. A text system should provides for query formulation by using Boolean AND, OR, NOT.

Boolean operators:

1. AND: Logical product or AND logic allows, the searches to specify the coincidence of two or more concepts.

For example:- a) RIVERS AND SALINITY
It would contain records with both the desired Rivers AND desired Salinity. This is called “Logical product”

Intersection portion of the both River AND Salinity portion called Retrieved set. This diagram is called Venndiagram.

Venndiagram

Retrieved Set

b) Intersection portion of the both Diary products AND Export AND Europe

2. OR: - Logical sum OR logic allows the searcher to specify alternatives among search terms (or concepts)
For example:- This is written as fruit a Vetables and it is called the logical sum Fruit as well as Vegetables

b) Retrieval system OR Computers
Search in the web, the web page will be open and displayed retrieval system as well as about computer but somany sites was opened about computer. Only few sites were opened in Retrieval system.

2. NOT:- Logical difference NOT logic provides to exclude items from a set.
For example: - a) FRUIT NOT APPLES
I want Fruit but NOT Apples.

Limitations of Boolean logic:
1. The Boolean retrieval mechanism tends to have an all-or-nothing quality. That is logical expression true otherwise false.
2. The logic of sets focus the value-judgement regarding a document into a binary scale either relevant or notrelavent.
3. Boolean logic makes it difficult to very depth of search in order to very the number of records or quantity of information required unless terms.
4. Complex searches are difficulty. Consisting of many different and connected parts.
5. Retrieve document can’t be ranked.

Conclusion:

As we have seen the concept of Boolean search models. It is important in developing to library and information science. Boolean search was similar document will be retrieved. Most of the library users a quicker search service from the entire above search technique can retrieve the Information easily and quickly.

Reference:
1. Meadow, Charles, T. Text Information retrieval systems. Academic press inc, 1992.

## Saturday, January 28, 2006

### Comparison of the Information Retrieval System with the Google website.

Comparison of the Information Retrieval System with the Google website.
When seeing the model of simple flow of information retrieval system along with the Google website. First we compare the population of documents with the number of websites carrying information all over the world. In the next stage the selected documents are those which we want to select whichever is most easier and most informative carrying with information. In this stage the websites will be indexed first according to their addresses and then it will be compared and analyzed the information which one has came to first and which one came in the last.
The Database of documents representation is the Google website. In this the needy of information will collect the information through the Google website.
From the point of view in taking into account of the user the requests whichever he wants the information. For Ex: We want information on the Information Retrieval System. This will consider as query. In the next stage it will compared the query with the information it had. And then it will give the results in the form of valued information that information will satisfied the user or not but it gives the information. If the user will satisfied with those information the procedure will stopped. If he not satisfied the procedure of retrieving the information will continued by changing the query or information need. This procedure will continued upto the user satisfied with the information.

## Tuesday, November 29, 2005

### CANON OF EXHAUSTIVENESS

 CANON OF EXHAUSTIVENESS The classes in an array of classes, and the ranked isolates in an array of ranked isolates should be totally exhaustive of their respective common immediate universes. In the rest of this chapter, any statement about classes is true also of ranked isolates. Any new entity added to the original universe should be assigned in the process of classification to the immediate under consideration and should be assigned to any of the existing classes or to a newly formed class, as the case may be, in the array under consideration.Universe of NumbersConsider the universe of integers. Use as characteristic the “remainder left by dividing a number by 2”. Then the resulting array will have only the two classes:-1 Class 1 consisting of the numbers giving zero as reminder “zero-class”: and2 Class 2 consisting of the numbers giving one as remainder “one-class”.These two classes in the array exhaust all the numbers in the immediate universe.Let us introduce rational numbers into the immediate universe. When divided by 2, a rational number will give us the remainder, either a proper fraction or an improper fraction lying between 1 and 2. As a result, a rational number cannot be included in either of the two classes already provide in the array. Therefore, that array is not totally Exhaustive of the new immediate universe. To make it totally Exhaustive, we must introduce in the array at least one more class- “Fraction Class”. It can also be done by introducing two classes in the array-namely “Proper-Fraction-Class” and “Improper-Fraction-Class”.Rational NumberZero -Class One-ClassThe above array is not totally exhaustive.Rational NumberZero-ClassProper-Fraction ClassOne-ClassImproper-Fraction ClassThe above array is totally exhaustive.Decimal Classification Edition 14In edition 14 of Decimal Classification (1942), after enumerating 8 Functions of Local Government, the residual class “Other Topics” is added at the end to make the array totally exhaustive. The “other-device” formally satisfies the Cannon of Exhaustiveness. But classes included in it are left without being individualized. This device is resorted to because of the fetters placed in the idea plane by the rigidity of the notational plane allowing only a limited number of digits or digit-groups to number the classes in an array.Decimal Classification Edition 17In edition 17 of Decimal Classification (1965), however, this rigidity in the notational system was partly removed by recognizing the eight digit-groups 91 to 98 as co-ordinate with the digits 1 to 8 and thus breaking the “Other Class” into eight different classes.Colon ClassificationColon Classification has not fettered itself at all. It allows any number of classes to be enumerated in an array until the immediate universe is exhausted. Further, if new classes appear in the immediate universe, they can be interpolated or extrapolated in their respective proper places among the already enumerated classes.Bibliographic ClassificationIn Bibliographic classification, after enumerating four special kinds of libraries, the residual class “Other Special Kinds of Libraries” is added at the end.Rider’s International ClassificationIn Rider’s International Classification, after enumerating 27 religions, the residual class “other Religions” is added at the end. BibliographyRang Nathan, S.R. 1989. Prolegomena to Library Classification. Bangalore: Sharada Rang Nathan Endowment for Library Science.

## Tuesday, November 15, 2005

### GOOD MANNERS

Good Manners

Every body likes a man with good manners. It is not easy to make a list of good manners because each occasion demands a set of good manners some of these change from region to region.
Teaching of good manners begins from very every day. Parents are the first teachers. They show themselves as models and occasionally tell the children what is expected of them. Children taught this way easily adapt themselves to the good manners taught of school. There are books for adults to learn what good manners are.
Good manners make Peoples Company pleasant for us. We can guess correctly how a good-mannered man will react to situation. A person of bad manners makes every moment ageing for those around him.
Children can win for themselves this good quality by observing a few rules. They are, respecting their elders, not speaking out of turn. Speaking softly, observing queues eating slowly and silently, and not prying into other peoples affairs. It is not at all difficult to observe these rules. We gain a lot and lose little. The world would be a happier place if there were more good-mannered people.

### AN IDEAL STUDENT

 An Ideal Student is one who studies well. He is hard working and sincere in his studies. He never wastes his time. He is always punctual for his lessons. He gets up early in the morning and learns his lessons at proper time. He does his home work punctualy. He speakes politiely to others. He is never afraid of examinations. He respectsand beys is parents and teachers. He is never proud; but humble in hes behaviour. All this friends. relatives and teachers like him very much. He is a model to everybody in his behaviour and his achivements.

## Monday, November 14, 2005

### ATOMIC EXPLOSIONS OF INDIA

Atomic Explosions of India.

India on May 18, 1974 conducted its first nuclear explosion in pokharan, Rakastjam. After a gap of 24 years India again conducted two atomic explosions on 11th and 13th May 1998. On may11th, through exposing India experimented an atomic-fission device a low-yield device and a thermo-nuclear device and emerged as the first country conducting these three experiments in one explosion. The second explosion of 13th May 1998 was mainly intended to collect details for conducting an explosion in the computer simulation method. Both explosions were successful and India emerged as a strong member among the atomic power nations.
The atomic explosions conducted by India invited pro anti reactions from India and abroad. Some people are of opinion that a developing country like India is wasting cross of rupees in the preparations of bombs and atomic weapons. But this argument can not be accepted. The authorities have clearly indicated that India will use its atomic power only for peaceful purposes and defense.
When our neighbors are not friendly and when are accumulating weapons for defense. Purpose India can not sit idle. We danger is threading us. The explosions made recently can be taken as a warning to those neighbors who are not friendly and co-operative.
India’s aim through the atomic experiments is the formation of a comprehensive atomic system. The three devices such as that fission device, the low yield device and the thermo nuclear were experimented together and its success is a great leap in the progress of atomic power. India is the only country successfully completing these three devices simultaneously. If the plan of India is to make atom bombs, India should not have conducted these three experiments. To make a bomb similar to that exploded in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, India doesn’t need all the technical know how, which India possesses today. The experiments conducted by India interested in making crude bombs. We are aiming at a believable atomic weapon system as well as powerful defense mechanism.
We have developed long missiles of high quality like Prithvi and Agni. These are better than the bombers for the defense Purposes. Now through the success in the experiments conducted by the nuclear explosions, India can equip the latest missiles more safely and successfully. In other words the result of these atomic explosions will clearly set a strong missile system for the defense purposes. The knowledge gained from explosions can be used in the other fields of science and technology too.
In this modern world where dangers through neighbors can not be predicted, every nation should guard them. For this, use of atomic power and the related technologies can not be blamed. But it should not be used for attacks or destructive purposes. There are so many peaceful uses of this power. All nations should understand the danger of atomic power misuse and subsequent disasters. The proposed comprehensive Test ban Treaty is to aim at this direction. But the provisions adopted in the treaty are beneficial for those countries already. This is the main objection of India in singing the treaty. An atomic Test Ban Treaty is appreciable for a peaceful life.

### WISH YOU HAPPY CHILDRENS DAY

The Children’s day

The birthday of Shri. Jawaharlal Nehru is celebrated as the children’s day. It falls on the 14th November. Every year it is celebrated through out India, Jawaharlal Nehru was a great cover of children. He is called “Cha-cha Nehru” by all children of the country
The children’s day is celebrated in all schools, meetings are held in honor of
Cha-cha Nehru. There are interesting programmes in all schools on this day.
In some schools games and sports are held for little children. Competitions are held in pointing singing and dancing. Prizes are given to all the winning children.
All children wait for this day eagerly. They feel happy on this day. They remember cha-cha Nehru who loved them throughout his life.
Jawaharlal Nehru loved children because they stand for peace. We should pray for world peace on this day.
The children’s day teaches us to love all children. Children are the real strength of a country. We should pray for the good health of all children on this day. We should thank shri. Jawaharlal Nehru who has taught us to love all children of the world.

### HABBIT IS SECOND TO NATURE

Next to natural instincts, habit has the strongest hold on human beings. Once a habit is formed, a human being finds it almost impossible to get rid of it. Even when a human being helpless. A habitual smoker cannot give up smoking eventhough he may form pious resolution to give it up. The same applies to the habits of gambling and drinking. We may almost say that, once a man gets into the habits of gambling, he will remain a life-long gambler whether if is gambling with cards or horse races. A habitual drunkard may be able to abstain from drinking for a couple of days. But he will find the craving for liquor so strong that after a brief interval of couple of days he will revert to the habit. The proverb is equally true of good habits. A man, who is frugal by habit, will never waste money. Man is, indeed, the slave of habits. To cultivate good habits maintain it in our daily routine is important. Habit formation is influenced by many factors. Hence we should be cautious about cultivating good habits for the success of our life.

## Sunday, November 13, 2005

### A STICH IN TIME SAVES NINE.

 A Stitch in Time Saves Nine. All of us have many things to do. If we think of them as too small or important to be taken up at once, they will accumulate. We will soon find that the work we ignored has grown into something that needs great effort to do, if all people, children must remember this. They have a lot to study but no one asks them to study the whole lot together. Instead they are given little bits to study. What happens when a child ignores them? They add us and became too big for the child to manage. If at all he manages to do the whole lot, he spends a lot of time and energy on it. This time and energy would have been necessary if he had tackled the little bits. This is true for children’s habits too. No habits are formed all of a sudden. If the seed of a bad habit is removed as soon as it falls, there will be no problem. But once the seed strikes root and puts forth branches it will be difficult to remove it. Adults should be careful in this. If their children show a bad habit or the beginning of one parents must remove it on the spot. If out of consideration for the youngsters nothing is done about it the habit will be difficult to remove. Let us always remember. A stitch in time saves nine.

## Saturday, November 12, 2005

### PREVENTION IS BETTER THAN CURE.

 Prevention is better than cure. To stop any harm from approaching us is much better than writing to let it come and then trying to remove it. This is what the proverb means. In life man has to pass through many dangers and difficulties. It is beyond man’s power to provide against those that come upon him suddenly and unexpected. But much can be done for the prevention of those which can be anticipated, if only a bit of caution and prudence is exercised. It is always suffer to prevent an evil than to allow it to overtake us. For, after it has done some amount of harm and put us to some expense it is useless to think seriously of remedying it. If the maxim is properly followed we can save ourselves from a good deal of trouble. Difficulty and expense. We know that bad habits once formed are very difficult to be shaken off later. The best course, therefore, would be to avoid contracting such habits, as may prove dangerous in later life. To permit such bad habits to grow upon us and later when they have taken a firm root, try to shake them off is neither easy nor prudent. When the symptoms of a disease first show signs of appearance much risk and expense can be avoided if a little care be taken. The disease then cannot take a firm hold upon the patient and be can be cured easily. Similarly, with the education boys, the deficiencies they might have in their early stages should and it will be almost impossible to get them over afterwards. Every little evil that we came across should be nipped in the bud and should never he allow growing. This will make life easy and free from cares and anxieties. The folly of not checking an evil at the very beginning can not be exaggerated. What can be more foolish than to knowingly allow an evil to overtake us with the idea of removing if after has actually come? Such a course, if it does not bring disaster, is sure to land one in extreme difficulty and subject one to no end of trouble. For or instance, if no attempt is made to prevent falling in to a disease say cholera, when it is spreading as an epidemic, when the disease actually attacks, it may make such progress and assume such serious proportions that it becomes well-nigh impossible to deal with it. Even if one be fortunate to get cured, it will be found that the cure has been secured at a very high cast there must have been no end of sufferings and expenditure on this accrue but he would have he but taken early steps to prevent the disease, the breach of golden rule of “prevention is better than cure”. Is attended with dangerous consequences in all spheres of life. Must danger that be fall man come with a warning. God given man prudence and foresight and it is his duty, therefore to take timely need of such dangers and adopt means to prevent them. If this is done, many of the ills of human life can be avoided, and man can lead a comparatively peaceful and care-free life. But what we do actually see in this world? Most men do not follow this rule. Due to lethargy and carelessness, they pay no need to the warnings of danger that are given and allow the danger to come in. it is only when the harm has been done that they think seriously of trying to remove it. This is the most foolish and ruinous course of action. Every one should remember that prevention is always better than cure.

### A LITTLE LEARNING IS A DANGEROUS THING

 A Little Learning is a Dangerous Thing Knowledge is essential. We acquire knowledge all our lives. But we have to perfect whatever we gather as knowledge. We have to bring it up-to-date too. We try to add to our knowledge but we must always remember that what we. Know is only very little compared to what we do not know. Our knowledge should not be allowed to make us vain, proud and haughty. We should not put into practice our knowledge till we know that it is complete and correct. Arguments begin when one starts with his imperfect knowledge. Every one knows a little about disease and medicines. Suppose one suggests some drug or remedy for an illness, we can imagine the consequences. Our imperfect knowledge will make us believe in a false cause; it will make us follow a dishonest leader. Imperfect knowledge will also cause unnecessary fear. Fear and hatred will present us from doing the right thing. It makes us vain. It makes us do foolish things. It makes us feel unnecessarily afraid. That is why we say, a little knowledge is dangerous thing.